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Sun & Planets roughly to scale. Distances not to scale.
HRL Laboratories has made a breakthrough in metallurgy with the announcement that researchers at the famous facility have developed a technique for successfully 3D printing high-strength aluminum alloys—including types Al7075 and Al6061—that opens the door to additive manufacturing of engineering-relevant alloys. These alloys are very desirable for aircraft and automobile parts and have been among thousands that were not amenable to additive manufacturing—3D printing—a difficulty that has been solved by the HRL researchers. An added benefit is that their method can be applied to additional alloy families such as high-strength steels and nickel-based superalloys difficult to process currently in additive manufacturing.
“We’re using a 70-year-old nucleation theory to solve a 100-year-old problem with a 21st century machine,” said Hunter Martin, who co-led the team with Brennan Yahata. Both are engineers in the HRL’s Sensors and Materials Laboratory and PhD students at University of California, Santa Barbara studying with Professor Tresa Pollock, a co-author on the study. Their paper 3D printing of high-strength aluminum alloys was published in the September 21, 2017 issue of Nature.
Additive manufacturing of metals typically begins with alloy powders that are applied in thin layers and heated with a laser or other direct heat source to melt and solidify the layers. Normally, if high-strength unweldable aluminum alloys such as Al7075 or AL6061 are used, the resulting parts suffer severe hot cracking—a condition that renders a metal part able to be pulled apart like a flaky biscuit.
HRL’s nanoparticle functionalization technique solves this problem by decorating high-strength unweldable alloy powders with specially selected nanoparticles. The nanoparticle-functionalized powder is fed into a 3D printer, which layers the powder and laser-fuses each layer to construct a three-dimensional object. During melting and solidification, the nanoparticles act as nucleation sites for the desired alloy microstructure, preventing hot cracking and allowing for retention of full alloy strength in the manufactured part.
Thanks to Jacki Thomas for suggesting this post.
A new kind of flexible “organic battery” could provide a more comfortable alternative to people fitted with pacemakers, say researchers.
Currently, heart devices such as pacemakers and defibrillators are powered by rigid metal-based batteries implanted under the skin that can rub and cause soreness.
The new invention from Queen’s University, Belfast, is made from biodegradable organic material and can change shape to suit the user.
Dr Geetha Srinivasan, from the university’s Ionic Liquid Laboratories Research Centre, said: “In medical devices such as pacemakers and defibrillators, there are two implants, one which is fitted in the heart and another which holds the metal based, rigid batteries. This is implanted under the skin.
“The implant under the skin is wired to the device and can cause patients discomfort as it is rubs against the skin.
“For this reason, batteries need to be compatible to the human body and ideally we would like them to be flexible so that they can adapt to body shapes.
“We have designed a flexible energy storage device which… has a longer life cycle, is non-flammable, has no leakage issues and above all, it is more flexible for placing within the body.”
Details of the device are published in the journal Energy Technology and Green Chemistry. Source: Flexible organic batteries could fit pacemakers
Zhang Zhi | Getty Images
The sinking of the Titanic continues to fascinate a surprising number of people. Soon, the first full-size replica of the ocean liner will allow delighted tourists to relive the ill-fated ship’s maiden voyage, right down to the crash.
The Unsinkable Titanic theme park measures nearly 883 feet long by 93 feet wide, and sits on the bank of the Qijiang River smack in China’s landlocked Sichuan Province. The ship will boast a ballroom, observation deck and first-class cabins, all fitted with historically accurate fixtures. The kitchen will serve up the same European fare passengers enjoyed. And, in a morbid twist, it will simulate the experience of being aboard the ship at the moment it crashed into that iceberg, just in case you forgot the Titanic wasn’t all fun.
The $160 million project is the centerpiece of the Romandisea resort, which also will feature a Venetian wedding chapel and “the world’s largest artificial indoor sky and seaside beach.” Qixing Energy Group chairman Su Shaojun says the company spent years purchasing fragments of the Titanic’s blueprints and hired Hollywood production designer Curtis Schnell to accurately reproduce it. Construction kicked off in December.
Previous attempts to build a full-on replica proved as disastrous as the ship’s voyage. In 1998, a South African businessman Sarel Gous announced plans to build Titanic II, but eventually scrapped the idea. Australian businessman Clive Palmer announced his own full-scale Titanic II five years ago, but the project stalled. But as this colorful aerial snapped by photographer Zhang Zhi shows, Unsinkable Titanic is coming along swimmingly, with more than 1,000 workers building the hull at Wuchang shipyard in Wuhan.
When complete, visitors will pay $435 a night to spend the night in an economy class rooms on a ship that faithfully reproduces everything passengers experienced aboard Titanic. Except the unpleasant bit at the end.
Light is pretty awesome. It’s made of subatomic particles called photons, which also behave like waves. It’s been demonstrated to act like both a particle and a wave simultaneously. Photons can be entangled at a distance. They reflect, refract and diffract. They have angular momentum, but no mass.
One thing they had never been observed doing was bouncing off each other and changing direction like snooker balls. But new research from the ATLAS experiment at CERN describes the first direct evidence of this actually happening.
The phenomenon is called light-by-light scattering, described by the Euler-Heisenberg Lagrangian published in 1936 by Hans Heinrich Euler and Werner Heisenberg (of uncertainty principle fame), and calculated by Robert Karplus and Maurice Neuman in 1951.
“According to classical electrodynamics, beams of light pass each other without being scattered,” explained Mateusz Dyndal, a researcher from DESY who performed a major role in data analysis, in a press release. “But if we take quantum physics into account, light can be scattered by light, even though this phenomenon seems very improbable.”
ATLAS researcher Jon Butterworth, a physics professor at University College London, likened it to two rubber balls bouncing off each other in an article he wrote for The Guardian.
The observation took place in the Large Hadron Collider, during a 2015 run in which it was smashing lead nuclei together. This is a much higher energy particle than the collider’s usual protons, which means there’s a dense cloud of photons involved. The heavy ions don’t usually collide with each other, but the photons can interact in what is called “ultra-peripheral collisions.”Out of four billion events analysed, the team found 13 candidate events for two photons interacting with each other and changing direction, rather than passing each other by.
The world’s most powerful X-ray laser opened Friday in Germany, promising to shed new light onto very small things by letting scientists penetrate the inner workings of atoms, viruses and chemical reactions. The mega-project generates extremely intense laser flashes, at a mind-boggling rate of 27,000 per second, inside a 3.4-kilometre (2.1-mile) tunnel below the northern city of Hamburg.
Hailed as one of Europe’s most cutting-edge research projects, the European XFEL, hidden 38 metres (125 feet) below corn fields and residential areas, was opened after eight years’ construction at a ribbon-cutting ceremony with science and technology ministers from the 11 countries involved.
At the heart of the 1.5-billion-euro ($1.7 billion) facility is the ultrafast X-ray laser strobe light, which will allow researchers for the first time to look deep inside matter and take snapshots and “molecular movies”.
“We can look deep into the micro-world, the nano-world, the world of atoms and molecules, and study things we didn’t previously know, for example what molecules do in a chemical reaction,” said Johanna Wanka, Germany’s education and research minister.
Teams from around the world will be able to, for instance, map the atomic details of viruses, take 3-D images of the molecular make-up of cells or film chemical reactions as they happen.
The huge laser is “like a camera and a microscope that will make it possible to see more tiny details and processes in the nano-world than ever before,” XFEL managing director Robert Feidenhans’l told AFP.
He said that so far, scientists know many chemical and biological processes only by their outcomes—like a football fan reading the score of a match he missed.
“Now you can see the game and you can analyse it … so next time you can win,” Feidenhans’l said. “The game could be a chemical process, a biological process, it could be how you get energy from sunlight. The principle is the same: you want to see the game.” Source: Monster X-ray laser offers glimpse into nano-world (Update)
Researchers at the University of St Andrews have thrown down the gauntlet to computer programmers to find a solution to a “simple” chess puzzle which could, in fact, take thousands of years to solve and net a $1m prize.
Computer Scientist Professor Ian Gent and his colleagues, at the University of St Andrews, believe any program capable of solving the famous “Queens Puzzle” efficiently, would be so powerful, it would be capable of solving tasks currently considered impossible, such as decrypting the toughest security on the internet.
In a paper published in the Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research today, the team conclude the rewards to be reaped by such a program would be immense, not least in financial terms with firms rushing to use it to offer technological solutions, and also a $1m prize offered by the Clay Mathematics Institute in America.
Devised in 1850, the Queens Puzzle originally challenged a player to place eight queens on a standard chessboard so that no two queens could attack each other. This means putting one queen in each row, so that no two queens are in the same column, and no two queens in the same diagonal. Although the problem has been solved by human beings, once the chess board increases to a large size no computer program can solve it.
Professor Gent and his colleagues, Senior Research Fellow Dr Peter Nightingale and Reader Dr Christopher Jefferson, all of the School of Computer Science at the University, first became intrigued by the puzzle after a friend challenged Professor Gent to solve it on Facebook.
The team found that once the chess board reached 1000 squares by 1000, computer progams could no longer cope with the vast number of options and sunk into a potentially eternal struggle akin to the fictional “super computer” Deep Thought in Douglas Adams’ Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy, which took seven and a half million years to provide an answer to the meaning of everything.
Professsor Gent said: “If you could write a computer program that could solve the problem really fast, you could adapt it to solve many of the most important problems that affect us all daily.
“This includes trivial challenges like working out the largest group of your Facebook friends who don’t know each other, or very important ones like cracking the codes that keep all our online transactions safe.”
The reason these problems are so difficult for computer programs, is that there are so many options to consider that it can take many years. This is due to a process of “backtracking” – an algorithm used in programming where every possible option is considered and then “backed away” from until the correct solution is found.
Dr Nightingale said: “However, this is all theoretical. In practice, nobody has ever come close to writing a program that can solve the problem quickly. So what our research has shown is that – for all practical purposes – it can’t be done.”
Dr Jefferson added: “There is a $1,000,000 prize for anyone who can prove whether or not the Queens Puzzle can be solved quickly so the rewards are high.”
Chess has long provided the source for puzzles such as the traditional fable of the servant who, when asked to choose a reward by his king, asked for one grain of rice to be placed on the first square of a standard 8×8 chessboard, doubled in the next and so on until it was found there was not enough rice in the entire world. Source: ‘Simple’ chess puzzle holds key to $1m prize
Denis Diderot (October 5, 1713 – July 31, 1784) was a French philosopher, art critic, and writer. He was a prominent person during the Enlightenment and is best known for serving as co-founder and chief editor of and contributor to – the inspiration for Deskarati –
Diderot also contributed to literature, notably with Jacques le fataliste et son maître (Jacques the Fatalist and his Master), which emulated Laurence Sterne in challenging conventions regarding novels and their structure and content, while also examining philosophical ideas about free will. Diderot is also known as the author of the dialogue, Le Neveu de Rameau (Rameau’s Nephew), upon which many articles and sermons about consumer desire have been based. His articles included many topics of the Enlightenment.
Renaissance artist Titian died on this day in 1576. Although he was arguably the leading Venetian painter for much of the 16th century, few confirmed examples of his early drawings survive. This pen and ink drawing was probably made between 1515 and 1525. Its airy quality and varied pen strokes lead scholars to believe this is indeed a drawing by the young Titian. It depicts St Eustice or St Hubert in a landscape with a classical ruin in the background – it’s unclear which saint is shown as both are associated with the stag. Source: British Museum
UNSW Sydney scientists studying microbes from some of the saltiest lakes in Antarctica have discovered a new way that the tiny organisms can share DNA that could help them grow and survive.
The research, based on 18 months of water sampling in remote Antarctic locations, including during the extreme cold of winter, could throw light on the evolutionary history of viruses.
The team unexpectedly discovered one strain of the Antarctic salt-loving microbes contained plasmids – small molecules of DNA which can replicate independently in a host cell, and which often contain genes useful to an organism.
“Unlike viruses, which encase themselves in a protective protein coat, plasmids usually move around by cell to cell contact, or as a piece of naked DNA,” says research team leader UNSW scientist Professor Rick Cavicchioli.
“But the plasmids that we found in the Antarctic microbes were masquerading as viruses. They produced proteins which went into the host’s membrane, which then allowed the membrane to bud off containing the plasmid DNA.
“The budded membranes, called membrane vesicles, allowed the plasmids to infect microbes of the same species that did not have any plasmids present, and then replicate themselves in the new host,” he says.
Study first author Dr Susanne Erdmann says: “This is the first time this mechanism has been documented. And it could be an evolutionary forerunner to some of the more structured protective coats that viruses have developed to help them spread and become successful invaders.
“This finding suggests some viruses may have evolved from plasmids,” she says. Source: Antarctic salt-loving microbes provide insights into evolution of viruses
As the moon snuck in front of the sun during Monday’s total solar eclipse, a NASA photographer captured a once-in-a-lifetime sight.
Joel Kowsky, one of the space agency’s photo editors, was in Banner, Wyoming, to watch the solar eclipse when he photographed the International Space Station zooming in front of a crescent sun.
Kowsky recorded a video using a high-speed camera that recorded 1,500 frames per second. He also photographed the ISS with a standard camera.
Such high-speed recording is necessary because the ISS is roughly the size of a football field, orbits Earth from 250 miles (400 kilometres) up, and moves at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour (28,000 km/h).
To capture such a fast-moving object from the right angle not only requires months or years of planning, but also a lot of luck.
The International Space Station, with a crew of six onboard, transits the sun during a partial solar eclipse near Banner, Wyoming. on August 21, 2017. Edited from: ScienceAlert
The images below show blue spheres representing relative amounts of Earth’s water in comparison to the size of the Earth. Are you surprised that these water spheres look so small? They are only small in relation to the size of the Earth. These images attempt to show three dimensions, so each sphere represents “volume.” They show that in comparison to the volume of the globe, the amount of water on the planet is very small. Oceans account for only a “thin film” of water on the surface.
The largest sphere represents all of Earth’s water. Its diameter is about 860 miles (the distance from Salt Lake City, Utah, to Topeka, Kansas) and has a volume of about 332,500,000 cubic miles (mi3) (1,386,000,000 cubic kilometers (km3)). This sphere includes all of the water in the oceans, ice caps, lakes, rivers, groundwater, atmospheric water, and even the water in you, your dog, and your tomato plant.
Liquid fresh water
How much of the total water is fresh water, which people and many other life forms need to survive? The blue sphere over Kentucky represents the world’s liquid fresh water (groundwater, lakes, swamp water, and rivers). The volume comes to about 2,551,100 mi3 (10,633,450 km3), of which 99 percent is groundwater, much of which is not accessible to humans. The diameter of this sphere is about 169.5 miles (272.8 kilometers).
Water in lakes and rivers
Do you notice the “tiny” bubble over Atlanta, Georgia? That one represents fresh water in all the lakes and rivers on the planet. Most of the water people and life of earth need every day comes from these surface-water sources. The volume of this sphere is about 22,339 mi3 (93,113 km3). The diameter of this sphere is about 34.9 miles (56.2 kilometers). Yes, Lake Michigan looks way bigger than this sphere, but you have to try to imagine a bubble almost 35 miles high—whereas the average depth of Lake Michigan is less than 300 feet (91 meters).
Credit: Howard Perlman, USGS; globe illustration by Jack Cook, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (©); Adam Nieman.
Data source: Igor Shiklomanov’s chapter “World fresh water resources” in Peter H. Gleick (editor), 1993, Water in Crisis: A Guide to the World’s Fresh Water Resources (Oxford University Press, New York).
You know the drill. On Monday 21 August the contiguous United States will experience a total solar eclipse – the first time the path of the Moon’s shadow will travel across the entire country since 1918. There will be hype, there will be science, and there will be what we estimate to be about a gazillion photos and videos of the event. Whether you’re going to see it live or not, here’s everything you need to know to be ready.
Here’s where it will strikeIf you’re planning to be physically present on the path of totality, we’re sure your travel plans have already been laid out well in advance. But just in case, here’s where you can find out where it’s going to hit and what times to look out for, depending on your location.
Here’s what you need to bring – Everyone’s been talking about eclipse glasses, and they are indeed the single most important piece of equipment you’re going to need to experience the sight in full glory, especially before and after totality hits. But there’s other stuff you may forget to chuck in the car in all that excitement – like binoculars, picnic gear, or even sunscreen. So we’ve prepared a handy list of the most important things, with some solid guidance from experienced eclipse viewer and astronomer Amanda Bauer.
If you’re planning to take photos or videos of the eclipse, make sure you bring the right filters and choose the right settings to avoid frying your expensive camera.
Here’s what to watch out for during totality – Everyone knows it gets weirdly dark when the Moon completely blots out the Sun in our sky. But you can also expect the weather to go weird. The ‘eclipse wind’ phenomenon puzzled meteorologists for some 300 years, until they finally came up with the most plausible explanation yet a couple years ago. Spoiler: it’s to do with variation in our planet’s boundary layer.
Another fascinating aspect of the strange totality darkness is its effect on animals. This has not been studied much, because it’s tricky to gather enough data on potentially weird animal behaviours triggered by the eclipse. Researchers are hoping that this time citizen scientists will help out with some observations. More here: – ScienceAlert
Forty years ago, the Voyager 1 and 2 missions began their journey from Earth to become the farthest-reaching missions in history. In the course of their missions, the two probes spent the next two decades sailing past the gas giants of Jupiter and Saturn. And while Voyager 1 then ventured into the outer Solar System, Voyager 2 swung by Uranus and Neptune, becoming the first and only probe in history to explore these worlds.
This summer, the probes will be marking the 40th anniversary of their launch – on September 5th and August 20th, respectively.Despite having travelled for so long and reaching such considerable distances from Earth, the probes are still in contact with NASA and sending back valuable data. So in addition to being the most distant missions from Earth, they are the longest-running mission in history.In addition to their distance and longevity, the Voyager spacecraft have also set numerous other records for robotic space missions. For example, in 2012, the Voyager 1 probe became the first and only spacecraft to have entered interstellar space. Voyage 2, meanwhile, is the only probe that has explored all four of the Solar System’s gas/ice giants – Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.
Their discoveries also include the first active volcanoes beyond Earth – on Jupiter’s moon Io – the first evidence of a possible subsurface ocean on Europa, the dense atmosphere around Titan (the only body beyond Earth with a dense, nitrogen-rich atmosphere), the craggy surface of Uranus’ “Frankenstein Moon” Miranda, and the ice plume geysers of Neptune’s largest moon, Triton. More here: NASA’s awesome Voyager Probes are both still going strong after 40 years
Here is the twelfth, and final, illustrated essay in this series which describes some of the houses and places associated with Jane Austen, and her novels, as well as the film and TV adaptations, although it does not claim to be a comprehensive gazetteer.
L. FILM AND TV LOCATIONS – “NORTHANGER ABBEY” (1818) AND “PERSUASION” (1817)
“Northanger Abbey” was one of Jane Austen’s earlier novels, but it was not published until 1818, the year after her death. It seems to have been the subject of continual revision, and changes of title, but the name, “Northanger Abbey” was the decision of her brother, Henry, who arranged publication. This was a good choice because it has more immediate impact in grabbing the attention of readers than some of Jane’s more muted and neutral ideas for a suitable title, like, “Catherine” or “Susan”.
The novel is a glorious pastiche of the craze for “Gothic” literary romances beginning, in the mid eighteenth century. It has to be remembered that this craze was the equivalent of the modern sensational films or TV serials, well over a hundred years before these modern media began to emerge slowly. It would be unreasonable to judge Jane’s gentle pastiche, without carefully setting aside all the “Gothic” fiction which developed long after her death. It has proved to be a very popular literary genre and has continued, in various other forms, down to our present day.
(i) The “Gothic” Novel
The definition of “Gothic” fiction given in Reference B can hardly be bettered and part of it is quoted here. “Gothic fiction, which is largely known by the subgenre of Gothic horror, is a genre or mode of literature and film that combines fiction and horror, death, and at times romance. Its origin is attributed to English author Horace Walpole, with his 1764 novel The Castle of Otranto, subtitled (in its second edition) ‘A Gothic Story’ (2).
The effect of Gothic fiction feeds on a pleasing sort of terror, an extension of Romantic literary pleasures that were relatively new at the time of Walpole’s novel. It originated in England in the second half of the 18th century and had much success in the 19th, as witnessed by Mary Shelley‘s Frankenstein and the works of Edgar Allan Poe. Another well known novel in this genre, dating from the late Victorian era, is Bram Stoker‘s Dracula. The name Gothic refers to the (pseudo)-medieval buildings, emulating Gothic architecture, in which many of these stories take place.” (Ref B)
Gothic novels often have a southern European setting, like Italy, or Spain, and later Transylvania, (“across the Forest” in modern Romania), because at the time, few middle-class English people had travelled abroad, and these books gave them a feeling for exotic and exciting places. The best that could be managed in the England of the early nineteenth century was to visit real places with dramatic settings.
Littledean Hall, (1) a largely Jacobean, or early seventeenth century house is typical of this. It occupies a site in the Forest of Dean, close to the lower course of the River Severn in Gloucestershire. “The mansion has a Roman ruin within its foundations, and its large cellars date from Saxon times. The current owner discovered one of Britain’s largest Roman temples in the grounds.” (Ref A)
The author goes on to describe the “dark corridors, and dimly-lit panelled Jacobean rooms (3) rich in atmosphere”. He explains that supernatural manifestations are experienced almost daily, and that this may be one of the most haunted houses in Britain. Today, the grounds and parts of the house are open to the public.