Many have tried, but none have succeeded. For at least a hundred years, scientists looking at hydrogen have scratched their chins when musing over the fact that it, as an alkali metal, by all rights should exist as a metal under the right circumstances. But thus far, no one has been able to figure out what the right circumstances might be. Until now. Maybe. Mikhail Eremets and Ivan Troyan of the Max-Planck Institute describe in their paper published in Nature Materials, how they subjected a sample of hydrogen to high pressure and low temperature and found it then demonstrated properties generally ascribed to a metal.
One of the problems in attempting to say whether something is a metal or not, is the somewhat flimsy criteria used to describe just what exactly a metal is. Most dictionaries describe it loosely as an electropositive element that probably should be shiny, a good conductor of both heat and electricity and should be malleable to some degree. And of course, common sense says that it probably ought to be solid at some temperature or pressure. And that’s the crux of the matter in trying to get hydrogen to look and act like a solid. All manner of people have subjected it to either or both and have failed to produce anything that most would say is a metal and that’s why this latest attempt by Eremets and Troyan has met with less than wild enthusiasm in the science world.
Regardless, they say that when they put a sample of hydrogen in a alumina-epoxy gasket that they put inside of a diamond anvil cell, an arrangement that allowed them to test the opacity via laser and the electrical resistance using electrodes, they found that without heating or cooling and at a pressure of 220GPa, the sample clouded to the point of becoming opaque and began to demonstrate an ability to conduct electricity. Next, the temperature was lowered to 30K and the pressure increased to 260GPa where they found an electrical resistance increase of 20 percent, before it leveled off. This the team says, shows the sample displaying metallic attributes.