This metre-wide Darwin’s bark spider web found recently in Madagascar is said to be one of the biggest, strongest spider webs ever discovered. Scientists are now working on ways to use spider silk in bulletproof vests and athletic clothing.
Biologists may have one-upped Spiderman, genetically modifying silkworms to produce spider silk with properties similar to natural spider web, a stunning achievement with vast potential medical and textile use.
Recent research highlights the process that can be used for industrial production of fibres that until now could only be produced in laboratories in tiny quantities.
“This research represents a significant breakthrough in the development of superior silk fibers for both medical and non-medical applications,” said Malcolm Fraser from Notre Dame University, Indiana who worked with University of Wyoming biochemist Randy Lewis and Kraig Biocraft Laboratories, Inc. on the project.
More tensile, elastic than natural silk
“The generation of silk fibres having the properties of spider silks has been one of the important goals in materials science,” Fraser stressed.
That is because natural spider silks have unusual physical properties, such as much higher tensile strength and elasticity than natural silk fibres.
Artificial spider silks produced by these transgenic silkworms have similar properties of strength and flexibility to natural spider webbing, said the scientists who announced the development at Notre Dame in Indiana.
Bulletproof vests made of spider silk
Previously only tiny amounts of spider silks had been made in labs. But this development opens the door to viable large-scale production.
Among the potential biomedical uses of the fibres: “fine suture materials, improved wound healing bandages, or natural scaffolds for tendon and ligament repair or replacement,” the scientists said in a statement.
“Spider silk-like fibres may also have applications beyond biomedical uses, such as in bulletproof vests, strong and lightweight structural fabrics, a new generation athletic clothing and improved automobile airbags,” they added.
Silkworm and spider a winning combination
When the transgenic silkworms spin their cocoons, they aren’t making silk or spider silks, the scientists explained.
“Silk produced is not ordinary silkworm silk, but, rather, a combination of silkworm silk and spider silk. The genetically engineered silk protein produced by the transgenic silkworms has markedly improved elasticity and strength approaching that of native spider silk,” they added.